Nouns are names of objects, i.e. things, human beings, animals, materials, abstract notions, states (e.g. table, house, man, dog, snow, music, love, sleep).
All nouns can be divided into two main groups: proper nouns and common nouns.
A proper noun is used for a particular person, place, thing or idea that is unique. It is generally spelled with a capital letter. Sometimes proper names can be used as common nouns: Ford ― a Ford = a car; Repin ― a Repin = a painter like Repin, etc.)
Common nouns can be classified into count nouns (denoting object that can becounted), uncount nouns (denoting object that cannot be counted) and collective nouns (denoting a group of persons)
Count nouns may be concrete denoting animate (boy, child) or inanimate (table, book, tree) objects and abstract (idea, question, problem).
Uncount nouns nouns may be abstract (fun, socialism) or material (bread,iron).
Many uncount nouns can also beсome countable in certain contexts.(He bought an evening paper.- He bought wallpaper.)
Collective nouns may be nouns of multitude (people, police, etc.) or collective proper (family, company, staff etc.) Collective nouns of multitude are used in the plural. Collective nouns proper are used in two ways: if you regard a particular noun as a single body, it is used in the singular: The audience was enormous. If you regard a noun as a group or persons, then it is used in the plural: My family are watching TV now.
More about nouns could be found here: http://uastudent.com/noun-morphemic-structure/